Observations of soil pollution are provided by observational network of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology and intended for revealing long-range changes of a soil pollution level in cities, agricultural lands, that are caused by emissions of industrial facilities, use of agricultural chemicals, mineral fertilizers. These observations are intended for revealing seasonal soil pollution by pesticides.
The soil pollution is observed in 23 regionns of Ukrtaine, moreover 2 stations (Konstantinovka and Mariupol) carry out observations of long-term changes in heavy metals pollution levels.
Seasonal observations are provided in 59 regions of Ukraine at agricultural lands where chemicals and pesticides were being applied.
In total, The State Committee for Hydrometeorology observes the contents of 19 chemical substances in soil .
The Analytical Services of Regional Deparments of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine provide control over status of soils in accordance with programs agreed with the Main Ecological Inspection.
This control is implemented by means of periodic sampling at observation points followed by laboratory analysis.
SES of Ministry of Health Protection also provides the selective control over soil parameters according to approved programs. In total, about 20 parameters are controlled.
The State Committee of Ukraine for Land Resources provides the control over ecological status of land resources within the framework of approved programs.
The observational network of the State Committee for Land Resources consists of two types of structures. The first of them is the network of regional divisions, which belong to the Committe directly, and the second is the network of regional branches of the Institute for Land Management.
The fixed observation points are absent. Field investigations consist in continuous survey of soils once 15 years. Any control points is not planned.
However, the created recently network of points located at strain-test stations and strain-test sites can be considered as observational system with stationary points. There are 50 such stations in total.
The State Committee for Land Resources provides the control over implementation of projects on land management, soil development, irrigation, re-cultivation as well as over ecological parameters of land use. The parameters of ecological status of land resources include, in particular,levels of soil pollution by chemical and radioactive substances, non-fulfilment of pest and weed control, non- fulfilment of measures on soil protection from wind and water erosion.
Observations of soil are carried out by means of large-scale soil survey with sinking a pit for every 8-20 (depending on a category of area complexity). Soil samples for laboratory analysis are taken from pits. Depending on a category of complexity, 12-30 samples per 1000 hectares are taken.
Analysis of cation- anion composition of water extract; physical-chemical, hydro-chemical parameters, fertility parameter is made.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Production of Ukraine carries out observations of status and contamination of agricultural lands as well as crop products.
The existing observational network consists of 25 control points and 651 observation points, which make up unified soil-agrochemical monitoring.
Continuous agrochemical monitoring of the fertility status and soil quality is carried out by Crimean designing-research stations for chemicalization of agriculture, which are the control points. They provide regular agrochemical soil survey, control quality of main types of fodder, determine levels of pollution of soils and springs, detect a presence of toxic substances in agricultural products.
Stationary control points carry out observations in basic farms, which are typical by soil-agrochemical conditions in the given region. Soil-agrochemical investigations include: sampling and mixed soil samples compiling; agrochemical analysis of samples, preparation of agrochemical charts and registration documents for survied sites, development of master tables containing the descriptions of survied objects.
At present there is no the network for regular observations of geochemical composition of soils and muddy in the State Committee of Ukraine for Geology.
Information are collected as a result of non-regular geological surveys, which only in the last years include planned eco-geochemical observations. However the Committee has an institutional basis for the creation of the network of geochemical observations. Points of geochemical expeditions stay may be considered as the prototypes of observation points. .
Analytical services, which are to some extent incorporated via methodology, standards and hardware(to a lesser extent). The basic methods are analysis are spectral, chemical analysis. Other methods are used mainly in Central laboratory and research institutes.
Main controlled soil parameters include: contents of toxic chemical elements and their compounds (pesticides, phenoles oil-products, surface-active substances, heavy metals).
These observations are carried out, as a rule, when geological surveys or thematic landscape-geochemical researches are implemented. The list of observed geochemical parameters depends on the mail (geological) goal of filfilled works. Therefore, data of these observations specify a soil pollution only partly.